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English Phonemes & Phonics

Voices
The 3 elements of voices
[1] Positioning [2] Tone [3] Volume
 Conso_ 
 nants
 place of articulation  exhalation / friction  voiceless or voiced
Hold the lower lip or tongue in contact with organs such as upper teeth. The sound is adjusted by the combination of how to exhale and the presence or absence of friction. Makes voiceless or voiced due to the absence of vocal cord vibration.
 Vowels  vowel tongue positions  hard or soft / long or short  stress or stressless
Hold the tongue in any of the 9 locations: 3 (front, center, and back) × 3 (upper, middle, and lower) =9 locations. It is the tension or relaxation tones, and a combination of long or short vowels. Makes a strong vowel or a weak vowel depending on the stress or stressless.


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Vowel phonemes
 Short
 vowels
 [1] Short vowle
 [2] Short vowle+ɚ - - - -
 [5] Schwa (Soft) - - - -
 [5] Schwa (Hard) - - -
 Long
 vowels
 [3] Long vowle -
 [4] Long vowle+ɚ
 [5] Schwa (Soft) - - - -
 [6] Schwa (Hard) - - - -

In any language, unless we pronounced words correctly, the 4 skills (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) will be difficult.

1. Hierarchical structure

If you arrange the English "Voice to Text" in the hierarchy order,

" (1) Phoneme → (2) Voice / Letter → (3) Syllable → (4) Word → (5) Phrase → (6) Sentence → (7) Text "

The relationship between the 7 stages and the 4 skills are as follows.

Voices Letters
【Hearing】 / 【speaking】 【Reading】 / 【writing】
 (1) Phoneme consonant phonemes / 
vowel phonemes
 (concatenation of voices)
consonant phoneme letters / 
vowel phonemes letters
 (concatenation of letters)
 (2) Voice /
      Letter
consonants / vowels consonant letters /
vowel letters
 (3) Syllable consonant phonemes
  + a vowel phoneme
  + consonant phonemes
consonant phoneme letters
  + a vowel phonemes letter
  + consonant phoneme letters
 (4) Word a syllable + a syllable… a syllable + a syllable…
 (5) Phrase a word voice + a word voice… a word spell + a word spell…
 (6) Sentence a phrase voice + a phrase voice… a phrase spell + a phrase spell…
 (7) Text a sentence voice + a sentence voice…… a sentence spell + a sentence spell…

2. Phoneme & the 4 skills

English "voices / letters" is related to
"voices  ↔  Phoneme  ↔  letters",
it means that phonemes have voices & letters.


The relationship between Phoneme & the 4 skills are as follows.

Voices Letters
【Hearing】 【speaking】 【Reading】 【writing】
 (1) Phoneme recognize them with phonemes. Speaking by phonemes recognize them with phonemes. Writing by phonemes
 (2) Voice /
      Letter
listen to the voices with the voices looking at the voices, with the letters
((3) Syllable)
 (4) Word Hearing of a word pronunciation pronounce a word. Reading a word spelling spell a word.

 【Hearing】 Hearing of a word pronunciation (in syllable units) listen to the voices recognize them with phonemes.
 【speaking】 Speaking by phonemes with the voices (in syllable units) pronounce a word.
 【Reading】 Reading a word spelling (in syllable units) looking at the letters recognize them with phonemes.
 【writing】 Writing by phonemes with the letters (in syllable units) spell a word.

3. Memorizing words

When you memorize English words,
through voices or spelling
connect with [Meaning = Phonemes],
and remember [Phonemes = Voices] and [Phonemes = Spelling] from the phonemes like phonics.

ex) [(pencil)]
Through "[pénsəl] (Voice)" or "pencil (Spelling)"
connect with
【[(Meaning)] = (pĔn・sŭl) (Phoneme)】,

and remember
【[(pĔn・sŭl) (Phoneme)] = [pénsəl] (Voice)】and
【[(pĔn・sŭl) (Phoneme)] = pencil (Spelling)】.

Voices Letters
【Hearing】 【speaking】 【Reading】 【writing】
( ※ Meaning ) [ (Meaning) ]
 (1) Phoneme  (  p  Ĕ  n  ・   s  ŭ  l  )  p  e  n  ・   c  i  l
 (2) Voice /
      Letter
[ pén  ・  səl ] pen  ・  cil
((3) Syllable)
 (4) Word [ pénsəl ] pencil
※ (PĔn・sŭl) is a phoneme symbol, [pénsəl] is a phonetic symbol.
※ blue letters are Consonant phonemes, and red letters are Vowel phonemes.




(1) Phoneme

Consonant phonemes

Consonant phonemes are the same as Consonants.

Vowel phonemes
English uses 1 to 3 vowels out of 20 vowels and pronounces them in 1 syllable as a vowel phoneme, instead of "vowel phonemes = vowels".
There are 31 vowel phonemes, with "voices and letters".
Note that vowels (20) and vowel phonemes (31) are confused.

ex) 'fire (fĪR) [fáiɚ]'

・(F) [f] is a consonant phoneme (or consonant), and (ĪR) [áiɚ] is a vowel phoneme. (→ (1) Phoneme)

・[á]・[i]・[ɚ] are vowels. (→ (2) Voice)

・(F) [f] uses the letter "f", and (ĪR) [áiɚ] uses the letter "ire", and spells it as "fire". (→ (2) characters)

・Since the consonant (f) [f] is exhaled, it does not become a syllable, but is connected to (ĪR) [áiɚ] (vowel phoneme). (→ (3) Syllables)

・Pronounce with one syllable of (fĪR) [fáiɚ], not three syllables of [fá・i・ɚ] and two syllables of [fá・iɚ] and [fái・ɚ]. (→ (3) Syllables)




This site is an excerpt from the Kindle version of " English Phonemes and Phonics (英語音素とフォニックス)".


We hope this will be an opportunity for you to learn English phonemes.


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